Chances are, you didn’t think too much about how you did it or why you did it that way.
You merely clicked on your turn signal…
…and turned left.
The New York State Department of Motor Vehicles instructs drivers to “try to use the left side of the intersection to help make sure that you do not interfere with traffic headed toward you that wants to turn left, ” as depicted in this thrilling official state government animation 😛 TAGEND
Slick, smooth, and in theory as safe as can be.
Instead of proceeding in an arc across the intersection, drivers carefully proceeded straight out across the center line of the road the latter are turning on and turned at a near-9 0-degree angle.
These old-timey driving rules transformed busy intersections into informal roundabouts, forcing vehicles to slow down so that they didn’t made pedestrians from behind.
Or so that, if they did, it wasn’t too painful.
“There was a real battle first of all by the urban majority against autoes taking over the street, and then a kind of counter-struggle by the people who wanted to sell vehicles, ” explains Peter Norton, associate prof of history at the University of Virginia and author of “Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City.”
Norton posted the vintage left-turn instructional image, originally published in a 1919 St. Louis drivers’ manual to Facebook on July 9. While regulations were laxer in suburban and rural areas, he explains, the sharp right-angle turning was standard in nearly every major American city through the late ‘2 0s.
That left turn rule was a real nuisance if you were a driver, but it was a real boon if you were a walker, ” he says.
For a few blissful decades after the automobile was devised, the question of how to prevent drivers from mowing down all of midtown every day was front-of-mind for many urban policymakers.
Pedestrians, Norton explains, accounted for a whopping 75% of road deaths back then. City-dwellers who, unlike home countries counterparts, often strolled on streets were, predictably, pretty pissed about that.
In 1903, New York City implemented one of the first traffic ordinances in the country, which codified the right-angle left. Initially , no one knew or cared, so the following year, the city stuck a bunch of big metal towers in the middle of the intersections, which pretty well spelled things out.
Some cities installed unmanned versions, dubbed “silent policemen, ” which instructed motorists to “keep to the right.”
Drivers ultimately got the message, and soon, the right-angle left turn spread to virtually every city in America.
Things were pretty good for pedestrians for a while.
According to Norton, a sales slump in 1922 -1 923 convinced many automakers that they’d maxed out their marketplace potential in big cities. Few people, it seemed, want to get drive in urban America. Parking spaces were nonexistent, traffic was slow-moving, and turning left was a time-consuming hassle. Most importantly, there were too many people in the road.
In order to attract more clients, they were required construct cities more hospitable to cars.
“It was a multi-front campaign, ” Norton says.
The lobbying started with local groups taxi taxi companies, truck fleet operators, vehicle dealers associations and eventually grew to include groups like the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce, which represented most major U.S. automakers.
Car advocates initially worked to take control of the traffic engineering profession. The first national firm, the Albert Erskine Bureau for Street Traffic Research, was founded in 1925 at Harvard University, with funds from Studebaker to make recommendations to cities on how to design streets.
Driving fast, they argued, was not inherently dangerous, but something that could be safe with proper road design.
Drivers weren’t responsible for road crashes. Pedestrian were.
Therefore, impeding traffic flow to give walkers an advantage at the expense of motor vehicle operators, they argued, is wasteful, inconvenient, and inefficient.
Industry-led automotive interest groups began producing off-the-shelf traffic regulations modeled on Los Angeles’ driver-friendly 1925 traffic code, including our modern-day left turning, which was adopted by municipalities across the country.
The towering silent policemen were replaced by dome-shaped bumps called “traffic mushrooms, ” which could be driven over.
Eventually the bumps were removed wholly. Obstacles and doubled yellow lines that ended at the beginning of an intersection encouraged drivers to begin their left turns immediately.
The old route of hanging a left was largely extinct by 1930 as the new, auto-friendly ordinances proved durable.
Yes. Also , no.
As more Americans bought vehicles, public opinion of who should operate the road genuinely did change. The current left turning model is better and more efficient for drivers who have to cross fewer lanes of traffic and streets are less chaotic than they were in the early part of the 20 th century.
Meanwhile, pedestrian demises have declined markedly over the years. While walkers made up 75% of all traffic fatalities in the 1920 s in some cities, by 2015, merely over 5,000 pedestrians were killed by cars on the street, roughly 15% of all vehicle-related demises.
While no one factor fully accounts for the decrease in pedestrian demises, Norton believes the industry’s success in stimulating roadways totally inhospitable to walkers helps explain the trend.
Simply put, fewer people are hit because fewer people are intersecting the street( or walking at all ). The detonation of auto-friendly city regulations which, among other things, permitted drivers to make faster, more aggressive left turns pushed people off the sidewalks and into their own vehicles.
When that happened, the nature of traffic accidents changed.
“Very often, a person killed in a auto in 1960 would have been a pedestrian a couple of decades earlier, ” Norton says.
We still live with that car-dominant model and current challenges that arise from it. Urban design that prioritizes drivers over walkers contributes to sprawl and, ultimately, to carbon emissions. A system engineered to facilitate auto movement also allows motor vehicle operators to avoid persons responsible for sharing the street in subtle styles. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention lists three tips to prevent injuries and deaths from car-human crashes all for pedestrians, including “carrying a flashlight when walk-to, ” and “wearing retro-reflective dres.”
A Minneapolis Star-Tribune analysis found that, of over 3,000 total collisions with pedestrians( including 95 fatalities) in the Twin Cities area between 2010 and 2014, merely 28 drivers were charged and convicted international crimes largely misdemeanors.
That includes a push by groups like Transportation Alternatives to install pedestrian plazas and motorcycle lanes and to promote bus rapid transit. It also includes Vision Zero, a security initiative in cities across America, which aims to end traffic fatalities by upgrading road signage, lowering speed limits, and installing more traffic circles, among other things.
As a historian, Norton hopes Americans come to understand that the route we behave on the road isn’t static or, necessarily, what we naturally opt. Often, he explains, it results from hundreds of conscious decisions built over decades.
“We’re surrounded by presumptions that are affecting our options, and we dont know where those assumptions come from because we dont know our own history, ” he says.
Even something as mindless as hanging a left.
Read more: www.upworthy.comContinue reading
In these times of political uncertainty, changing weather patterns, and growing global insecurity, it’s good to know that one thing you can always rely on in this increasingly crazy world is food. Right? Wrong! Because as you can see from the pictures below, you can’t even trust that anymore. Compiled by Bored Panda , the list contains some truly shocking examples of how food continues to betray us hungry humen on a daily basis. No wonder we don’t know who or what to believe anymore! Don’t forget to vote for the most outrageous offender.
<div clartag 121 ttread more: atag 1 tt
Pet owners warned of poisonous mushroom at a Santa Barbara park after dog dies
SANTA BARBARA, Calif. – A Santa Barbara woman is grieving after she had to put her dog down earlier this week. Teslin LeMaster says her chocolate lab, Cruz, ate a poisonous mushroom at the Douglas Family Preserve park in Santa Barbara. LeMaster says …
Read more: www.keyt.comContinue reading
Maritime UK says logistics chain would be interrupted if transition bargain is not concurred urgently
Find out how to hunt, gather mushrooms
Join us at the library on Wednesday, May 9, from 5:30-7:30 p.m. for a presentation on the basics of mushroom foraging. Presenter Tavis Lynch will discuss how and where mushrooms grow and how to identify safe edibles. Lynch is a mushroom expert …
Read more: www.newrichmond-news.comContinue reading
Cape Cod, Massachusetts( CNN) Part of the appeal of the Outer Cape has always been the rustic charm of the fried seafood eateries, taffy stores, keepsake stores and ice cream parlors dotting the main artery, Route 6.
The Epoch Times
The Mushroom Is Becoming a Nutritional Star
The Epoch Times
Mushrooms are often considered only for their culinary use because they are packed with flavor-enhancers and have gourmet appeal. That is probably why they are the second most popular pizza topping, next to pepperoni. In the past, food scientists like …
Read more: www.theepochtimes.comContinue reading
On the anniversary of Hiroshimas nuclear demolition, a walk through the citys memorial park reveals a complex mixture of devastation and rehabilitation
Hiroshima is flourishing. It has a population outstripping 1.19 million, a burgeoning gourmet scene, towering luxury shopping centres, and a trendy night life. It is a city of vibrant green boulevards and open spaces, entangled by the braided tributaries of the ta River. However it is also a city of memorialisation. Over 75 monuments, large and small, sprout like delicate mushrooms in parks and on sidewalks, scattered across the city as if by the wind. Whilst the city grows and evolves, the memory are still in Hiroshima as first place on Earth where nuclear weapons were used in warfare, on 6 August 1945.
The number of fatalities is not known, due wartime population transience and the destruction of records in the blast. Estimations are in the region of 135, 000 people, approximately equivalent to the population of Oxford. It is therefore unsurprising that many locals have Hibakusha veterans in their families. The Hibakusha community preserve a living collective memory of the bomb, sharing their atomic folktales similarly to the Kataribe storytellers, as a cautionary modern myth against nuclear war.
Read more: www.theguardian.comContinue reading
The 1996 Stanley Tucci film about an Italian eatery in the 1950 s is a culture milestone, tells Mario Batali and it foresees the future of the business
Theres this new eatery you gotta try no one knows about it yet. Its called Paradise, and its Italian, real Italian, near the water in a little east coast port township a couple hours drive from here. The dining room is spare and simple, with a lovely curved wooden bar up front, an antique espresso machine, and charming paintings on the wall donated by some local artist, I think in exchange for dinner.
Yeah, a real mom-and-pop spot, except mom and pop are two brothers from Italy who dont always get on. But the food? They say the seafood risottos the equal of anything in Venice, and on special occasions theyll stimulate timpano, this drum-size cake of pasta, meatballs, hard-boiled eggs, sauce, and, well, magical. Unbelievable. You free Saturday?
One hitch: Paradise doesnt exist.
Or rather, Paradise exists, but merely in Big Night, the great food movie starring Isabella Rossellini, Tony Shalhoub, and Stanley Tucci. Premiered at the Sundance Film Festival 20 years ago on January 24, 1996 Big Night focuses on the volatile concerning the relationship between two immigrant restaurateurs, the uncompromising chef Primo( Shalhoub) and his younger sibling, Secondo( Tucci ), who runs the dining room and is trying urgently to keep the business afloat.
Thats a particular challenge because Big Night is set in the late 1950 s, when Italian-restaurant customers demanded spaghetti and meatballs , not delicate Venetian rice dishes. Over the course of a few days, the brothers cook, bicker, court women( Rossellini, Minnie Driver and Alison Janney ), and host a wild, hours-long feast for the musician Louis Prima, in an attempt to drum up the good press they need to stay alive. It is not exposing too much, I hope, to say that this big night does not run entirely according to plan.Continue reading
It’s like something from a Monty Python sketch: Sections of a 16 th-century Scottish palace were lately closed to the public due to a “very angry badger.”
It’s not clear what the animal did to leave the impression that it was “very angry” 😛 TAGEND
Observers on Twitter suggested feeding mushrooms, peanuts and peanut butter to the badger, but cameras sent in on Saturday revealed that Historic Scotland’s cat food plot may have worked, as the animal appeared to have fled the scene.
However, the badger dug through loose soil and stonework, leaving behind a mess, the Scotsman reported. Although the passageway will stay shuttered while it’s cleaned, the rest of the castle will be open to tourists.
Built in 1530, Craignethan is noted for its castles, which were built to protect it from cannon and considered ahead of their hour. Although a rampart was demolished in 1579, its ruinings remain on the grounds.
Badgers are Scotland’s largest wild carnivores. While they are generally not aggressive toward humen, a wounded or cornered animal may assault — and in a tunnel such as the one at Craignethan, a badger encountering a human could indeed feeling cornered.
Read more: www.huffingtonpost.com