Category Archives for Mushrooms

Psychedelic Lichen May Contain Multiple Hallucinogenic Compounds

Anyone who supposes botany cant be cool ought to know about a recently discovered lichen that researchers believe could contain two of the strongest hallucinogenic compounds known to man, making it a candidate for the trippiest scientific development of recent years.

Discovered in the Ecuadorian Amazon, the species appears to contain both psilocybin which is famously may be in magic mushrooms and a variant ofDMT, the active ingredient in the sacred Amazonian brew known as ayahuasca, which has been used in shamanic rituals for centuries.

Though the Amazon is well known for its hallucinogenic plants, rumors about a psychedelic lichen were for many years thought to be nothing more than local legend. Unlike plants, lichens are composite organisms that arise from algae or a type of bacteria called cyanobacteria, which form symbiotic relationships with fungi.

The first clues as to the existence of this fabled lichen arrived when an ethnobotanical expedition from Harvard set out to try and locate it in 1981, and returned with a previously unknown species that seemed to match the description given by members of the Waorani tribe, who claimed to use the lichen in their rituals.


The lichen Dictyonema huaorani was found in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Schmull et al/ The Bryologist

The specimen named Dictyonema huaorani in honor of the Waorani then sat in storage for more than three decades, until a team of researchers decided to analyze its DNA in search of clues as to which compounds it creates. Publishing their findings in the periodical The Bryologist, the study authors reveal that the lichen contains genes thatare likely to be involved in the synthesis of both psilocybin and DMT, building it an all-in-one super hallucinogen.

However, because they only had a very small amount of instead old material to work with, they insist that their results are only tentative, and that a more thorough analysis of Dictyonema huaorani will be needed in order to confirm the presence of these compounds.

Given that both psilocybin and DMT are currently attracting the attention of neuroscientists for their apparent they are able to treat neurological disorders, the existence of a lichen containing both of these substances if confirmed could be hugely valuable to both Western scientists and Amazonian healers alike.

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‘ Why I told my mother not to read my volume’- memoirs of a former wild daughter

Claire Dederer has written what is surely one of the most excruciatingly frank memoirs ever raw, revealing and explicit

In the days before I’m due to speak to the writer Claire Dederer, the Freudian in me( admittedly quite a diminutive figure) begins to wonder if she isn’t subconsciously trying to wriggle out of our dialogue. First, there’s trouble with her broadband connect, which entails Skype is out of the question( she lives on an island merely off Seattle ). Then I’m told that thanks to a terrible collision involving a pavement and her face, I’ll have to wait a few days while mobility is restored to her stitched lip. Even when I do finally hear her( slightly subdued) voice down the line, part of me is still convinced she’s about to hang up. After all, writers do sometimes suffer from the equivalent of buyer’s regret- and she would have more reason than most for doing so, being the author of what is surely one of the most excruciatingly frank memoirs ever to make it to hard covers.

When she first began thinking about this memoir- its somewhat vague title, Love and Trouble: Memoirs of a Former Wild Girl , scarcely clues at the places it takes you- Dederer was 44 years old, and in possession of a life that was, by any criteria, blessed. On her island, a democratic stronghold that is reachable only by ferry, she was living in her very pretty house( it has a badminton court and looks out over woodland) with her husband and two children; a journalist, she was also enjoying a big success with her first volume, the best-selling Poser: A Mother’s Life in Twenty-Three Yoga Poses ( as Elizabeth Gilbert, the author of Eat, Pray, Love and a major Dederer fan , notes:” It is very difficult to find books about yoga that aren’t incredibly riling .”)

But appearances can be deceptive. Somewhere inside her, it was as if a switch had been flipped. She was having some kind of midlife crisis, one that involved some unnervingly juvenile behaviour. First went the listlessness and the crying jag. Then came the amazing friskiness: the compulsive flirting, the yearning for sexual “obliteration”. Taking all these symptoms into account, it passed to her that the person she most resembled all of sudden was the” disastrous pirate slut of a girl” she’d been as a adolescent.

Was this- whisper it- the menopause? No.” It had nothing to do with my hormones ,” she tells me now, sounding nearly weary at the believe.” It was an existential crisis; it was about the death of beauty and the decaying body – you know, the succumbing animal. Unlike men, who usually run through this apprehension of their own finality in their 60 s, females tend to come up against it more in their 40 s. I’m pretty sure it has to do with the end of sex viability, with the loss of the male gaze .”

Claire Dederer. Photo: Jenny Jimenez

The trouble is, though, that writing about this feeling- let us not call it the “invisibility” of the middle-aged woman- is so fraught with peril.” It voices so vapid ,” she says,” like you’re courting sexual harassment or something .” Plus, there was their own problems that her longings, which involved, just as they’ve always done, both objectification and submission, were not exactly politically correct.” It felt daring[ writing them down ], even at the time. It’s a strongly feminist book, but it’s not party-line feminism. I was very concerned I was going to be called out .” No wonder, then, that Love and Trouble took five long years to write.

But where did those passions come from in the first place? How is it that she can be excited by” the idea of victimhood” and still have been, like most women, victimised herself? This is one of several complex, intimate matters Love and Trouble attempts to investigate( another is the problem of sexuality between the long-married; yet another is the issue of predation, and the effect it has on the way women lead “peoples lives” ).

Dederer, who grew up in Seattle, was bear at the back end of the 60 s. As a tomboy who adored her older brother, Dave- even now she feels as if she’s in drag when she sets on a dress- her childhood was marked by her mothers’ divorce in 1980, when her “matron mom” took up with a bearded, braided, pot-smoking guy eight years her junior. Thanks to this, the family was reconstituted, induced looser. It was a hour, she writes in her volume, of “weirdos”. Part of her mother’s new liberty involved having these weirdos- friends of the new boyfriend, mostly- show up and stay for a while; another part was her new preoccupation with matters other than the strictly domestic. Like most children then, Dederer and her friend had, as a consequence, a licence to roam.

These were, she supposes now, the best of hours, and the worst of days.” The idea of being free was the salient phase of the 70 s ,” she tells.” It had primacy over everything, and it had a sexual component: a revolution was happening that said all your old hang-ups were just that, and being free sexually was the most important thing .” She pauses.” That seems victimless, right? But it wasn’t. Parents were not home as much, and children were unsupervised. I was at large, roaming the veldt, and while that’s something I miss for my own children- a lot of benefits arrived with that- there were risks, too. The culture was busies celebrating the sexuality of very young girls: Jodie Foster in Taxi Driver , Brooke Shields in Pretty Baby , every other album encompas. The three things together created this tolerance[ a blind eye] among adults which is horrifying to look back on. Children were the victims of the sexual revolution. I believe that deep .”

‘ At 14, she acquired her first boyfriend ‘: passport kiosk photos of Claire Dederer in her wild child days

Dederer isn’t sure what effect all this had on her sexuality. When she was 13, for example, a hippy in cut-offs climbed inside her sleeping bag( it was the holidays, she wanted to sleep under the stars ); she simply had time to feel his erecting against her before he ran off, startled by the voice of her mother screaming the words:” Claire! Goodnight !” But making too much of such an incident- it terrified her, and yet some small part of her enjoyed “members attention”- strikes her as an overly neat style of ordering the messy narrative of her life.

The chapter in her book that is called ” Recidivist Slutty Tendencies in the Pre-Aids-Era Adolescent Female”, and which poses as an academic newspaper analyse her behaviour as a teen (” Let us proceed to the subject’s history … at 14, she acquired her first boyfriend “), reaches no firm conclusion in the face of its subject’s undoubted enthusiasm for promiscuity (” The topic never stopped, she was like a shark .”)

Nevertheless, from the moment she got running, sexually speaking, she was aware that she operated at a” higher pitch” than most. She may not have enjoyed every physical encounter: one of her memoir’s chief virtues lies in the way it shows that good and bad sexuality are at once in close proximity and yet miles apart. But still, she craved such contact more than anything.

” I wanted harder ,” she writes.” And yet I felt disempowered to take action. I needed someone to do it to me. This need would never go away …” And the point is , now, that she doesn’t really mind that this is the case.” I don’t know if my desire to be predominated grows out of my early experiences ,” she tells.” But that is part of the sexuality I was given, and I’m not about to give it up .”

In the US, Love and Trouble came before the allegations against Harvey Weinstein and the rise of #MeToo, which meant that reviewers took its ribald tone at face value, often dismissing its darker undercurrents, the fact that its twin engines are sex fear and sex bureau, and all the ways they operate, together and apart. Nor did they focus on the letter she includes in its pages to Roman Polanski( Dederer watches Samantha Geimer, who the director raped in 1977 when she was 13, as a” universal symbol of the predation of little girls” in the 70 s ).

” It has been weird ,” she tells, of this timing.” Part of me thinks it’s spookily prescient that I wrote about Polanski, and part of me thinks that as a subject it’s depressingly eternal, and therefore not prescient at all. But yes, I feel part of my volume got missed: the part that shows that these incursions, these violations, are happening around us all the time, and that even when they seem not to be a big deal, taken together, they add up to one. One thing the book gives you that’s fascinating in the context of #MeToo is the feeling of what it’s like to live with the aftermath of sex predation. I moved through the world impression afraid of rape and assault; that fear is inside me, omnipresent, and it has repercussions, which the book tries to get at .”

Her attitude to #MeToo is, however, lightly shaded with doubt.” I think this moment is unbelievable ,” she tells.” The gift of faith transferring from the accused to the accuser is unbelievably important. But I’m concerned there’s a way it will victimise or infantilise women’s sexuality, and I guess this is based on my own experiences. If you just see sexuality as something that is done to you in a negative way, then a really big part of your own experience is taken away from you. Any period we try to normalise or standardise sexuality, different groups whose freedoms are ultimately truncated is girls. Infantilisation and demonisation of sexuality has not worked out well for women in the past .”

Dederer also worries about where we may be going in terms of the work of those with dubious private lives( she recently wrote for the Paris Review on the experience of re-watching Woody Allen’s Manhattan ).” These are murky water to wade into ,” she says.” But I will continue to write about my faith that we don’t jettison the art .” The topic of her next book is likely to be these” art monsters “.

Naturally, she is leery of the” eternal flow of hot takes” on the issue of consent; read one route, Love and Trouble is a 235 -page exploration of the subject, which seems to be the least the subject deserves. Still, as the mother of a 16 -year-old son, she sees the present dialogue around it as a positive thing:” It’s about taking the fear I’ve lived with all my life, and attaining men have a part of it. When my son is at a party one day in the future, he will be afraid of being falsely accused, and that seems like a fair trade to me: that men have to start to walk on egg shells, too .”

Can this exist side-by-side with a sexuality that, as she sets it:” espouses and enjoys the exhilaration and drama of being overcome and overwhelmed “? She believes that it can, though the thrill of longing,” the drive to be wanted and admired by humen”, is perhaps even harder to talk about than permission.” That also operates through my volume, and it’s an embarrassing thing to discuss. Writing about it felt tender and vulnerable and goofy. When you’re a girl, especially a pretty daughter- that’s also hard to say: it voices obnoxious- there’s such a gap between being and doing, between what you look like and the stuff inside .”

Ah, yes: shame. For Dederer, various principles guide the process of developing memoir. Good catharsis stimulates for bad penning. The idea of the transformed self is loathsome. Only” dark truthfulness saves memoir from narcissism”( though the squeamish British reader may feel, sometimes, that even this does not always do the job ). For this last reason, then, her volume features not only some pretty out-there self-debasement, including an episode in which, having fallen out of university, we watch her following a callous academic, aka the Quark Basher, to Sydney, only for him to abandon her. It also includes a buttock-clenching chapter called ” How To Have Sex With Your Husband of Fifteen Years “:” Kick the flowered quilt off the bed … reach into his boxer shorts … don’t think about the back of your left leg, where you recently spotted a single, squiggling varicose veins …” It goes on for six pages. There seems to be almost nothing she won’t tell us about what she and her husband do in the privacy rights of their own bedroom( it’s always the bedroom:” The family spaces are too, well, family-ish .”)

I have to ask: how did those who are in the book respond to it, especially the men? She hasn’t heard from the Quark Basher.” You know what they say: if you write about someone, give them a big penis and then they never complain .” What about her husband?( He is Bruce Barcott, also a journalist, and you can only imagine how he feels about the route she describes his naked body, or her email flirtation with a famous Californian short story writer .)

” Normally, I demonstrate him work in draft. But this was something I hid, like I was growing mushrooms in the cellar, secret and dank. So when I had to give it to him, yeah, it was a problem. Partly because I hadn’t talked to him about a lot of the impressions I was having .” An intake of breath.” It was hard, but he dealt with it beautifully .” They are together; she never actually cheated.

And her mom? As I read Love and Trouble – compulsively, at once fascinated and repulsed- I’d wondered how she’d managed to keep going knowing that her mothers might one day read it. Dederer laughs. She knows exactly what I mean.” But before it came out, I had a flash of genius ,” she tells.” I believed: I’m just going to tell them not to read it, and if they then go behind my back, that’s their problem , not mine .” So far, she has no reason to suspect they might have done otherwise- that, or they are two superb actors.

Love and Trouble: Memoirs of a Former Wild Girl by Claire Dederer is published by Headline at PS14. 99. To order a transcript for PS12. 74, go to . The book is reviewed in this week’s Observer New Review

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Scientists Can Now Measure The Mystical Consequence Of Magic Mushrooms

Ever since LSD was first synthesized back in the 1930 s, psychotherapists have been interested in using hallucinogenic drugs to treat a range of mental disorders. However, attempts to do so have struggled to gain widespread support from the medical community, partly because the visionary journeys these substances generate are so idiosyncratic, and therefore difficult to analyze. Yet a team of researchers believe they have now observed a way to scientifically analyze the mystical experiences produced by psilocybin-containing mushrooms, potentially opening the door for their use in psychological therapy.

Publishing their findings in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, the team definesmystical experience usingfour central characteristics. These include a sense of mysticism, meaning a sensation of sacredness or unity with all things, positive mood, transcendence of period and space, and ineffability or be thought that the experience is beyond words.

The team of psychiatrists and neuroscientists from the John Hopkins University School of Medicine have developed a 30 -item Mystical Experience Questionnaire, “ve called the” MEQ3 0, which addresses all four of these elements and can be used to obtain an overall score to describe the intensity of the mystic experience. This was achieved by analyzing data collected from five laboratory-based experimentations, in which a total of 184 participants “ve been given” moderate to high dosages of psilocybin and asked to describe their experience.

For instance, in order to determine the level of mysticism, the MEQ3 0 asks participants to state how strongly they felt connected to ultimate reality.Data relating to transcendence of space of hour, meanwhile, is extracted from the degree to which participants lost their usual awareness of where[ they] were.

More crucially, such studies authors claim that scores obtained from the MEQ3 0 can be accurately used to predict the long-term effects of psilocybin use, since the data revealed that those who attained greater mystic experiences also reported continued improvements in their state of mind further down the line. This builds on previous studies which have revealed that patients who are deemed to have had a complete mystical experience on psilocybin are more likely to feel increased wellbeing or life gratification 14 months later.

While the study authors insist that the biological mechanisms underlying mystical experiences have not been identified, recent research into the subject has led to the development of a number of hypothesis. For instance, a study at Imperial College London exposed how psilocybin caused a decrease in brain activity in the parts of the brain typically associated with the sense of ego, or ego.At the same hour, an increase in communication between certain other parts of the brain was observed, producing a pattern of activity that resembled dream sleep.

Findings such as this have led to the rise of the word psychointegrator to describe psychedelic substances such as psilocybin, since they incorporate neuronal activity by increasing connectivity and communicationin the brain. To dedicate an idea of what this looks like, the image below compares functionalbrainnetworks observedunder normal conditions and on psilocybin.

Image: Simplified visualization of fMRI( Functional magnetic resonance imaging) offunctional brain networksunder normal conditions( left) and on psilocybin( right ). Research image byDr. Robin Carhart-Harris, presented at Breaking Convention on July 12 th 2015. Photograph by Benjamin Taub for IFLScience .

However, while scientists are working to unravel the mechanisms by which psychedelic compounds work on the brain, the situation remains extremely complex and the effects of such substances are still hard to predict. For instance, it is generally held that psychedelic experiences are staggeringly influenced by the factors of set and defining.Set refers to the psychological condition of the person or persons ingesting the narcotic, while defining indicates actual surrounds in which the substance is taken. With the development of the MEQ3 0, though, it is hoped that these effects can be more scientifically classified and analyzed, leading to a greater understanding of how psychedelics can be used to treat psychological disorders.

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Swiss gourmet stars take fine dining route beyond fondu

( CNN) You know Swiss food. Skewered lumps of bread swirled in volcanically hot cheese fondue, followed by copious quantities of chocolate with a side order of muesli. Right?

While these are admittedly three famous elements in the country’s culinary repertoire, there’s a whole lot more to what is one of Europe’s most amazingly diverse and rich dining cultures.

Switzerland also boasts serious cred on the global stage.

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Puff Puff Pass: The New Rules To Perfecting Your Weed Etiquette

A lot of people who do drugs or smoke weed arent the individuals who typically conform to societal norms.

They break the law to get the good stuff that takes you deep into your subconscious, and they have a tight-knit society that follows a loosely codified standard of behaviour that is passed on by word of mouth, ballad lyrics, and scenes in movies.

Among these rules are the common motif of sharing, caring and being discreet; if you violate these rules, you wont inevitably be sent to jail. You will, however, most definitely not be invited into another smoke session.

Dont be that guy. Be the cool guy.

Be a good host.

If you are going inside a friends home or inviting a friend over, old or new, you know whether or not they smoke weed. Youve discussed it openly, or smelled the loud on the other person.

You know youre both down. No amazes. If you have a bong out on your coffee table, you should offer it to your guests, along with water. ALWAYS HAVE WATER. The rule of being the host with the most is vital.

Smoking weed together is a bonding, intimate experience that can be ruined if water, security, and discretion arent respected. If the person or persons you invited over doesnt, in fact, smoke weed dont worry.

Offering it was still the polite thing to dojust dont pressure them. Never, ever pressure someone to smoke weed. That is the opposite of our plight.

And no pics without permission!

Be prepared to share in public.

Sure, tons of people smoke weed by themselves. Thats wholly cool. But when you bust it out in public, you are now openly inviting others to smoke with you, or you are rude.

Joints and blunts are easy to share and can accommodate a big circle of people without necessitating participants to offer to make a salad since its already rolled.

If you dont wishes to share, you can text your smoking buddies to join you, make a cool eyebrow gesture or just creepily whisper in their ear to follow you around the corner to smoke in privacy.

If you bring out a glass piece while in a crowd, other people may or may not offer their own weed which could a) piss you off or b) you could make a bunch of awesome friends who are touched by your kindnes and will share with you in the future.

Choose wisely.( Personally, when in doubt, I merely share .)

Pass it to the left.

Okay, say youve busted out the joint, and youre passing it around. Two puffeds, then pass the Dutchie to the left hand sideBob Marley constructed that very explicit.

If you have a story to tell and the weed simply moves you to share it, made the joint first and pass it. Nobody likes a Bogart. People would be recalled that you do that. Good natured friends will hear you say Hey, Bogart! and will apologize and pass the joint with alacrity.

For hotheads, I recommend smoking merely glass piecesthen the weed isnt smoldering away with their long, drawn-out tale. Side note: If youve been given the honor of greens on a bowl dont torch it; skills with a lighter are necessary.

You want to light only a tiny section of the weed to take a hit before passing it to the next person who will, in turn, attempt to keep as much green proving when they take their reach, too. Find, were all in this together!

Let people know what theyre smoking.

Being super educated about your weed is a newer phenomenon. My mama still has no idea discrepancies between indica and sativa( sleepy vs upper) and cannot comprehend the concept of terpene content in the strains.

But we millennials and cannabis professionals are all about knowing the strain, who grew it, how it was extracted if its concentrated and how its going to make us feelbut youre not required to exam someones blood composition and cross-test it with the stres because grownups can make their own choices.

If you know the strain, tell them. Its Jack Herer, youll tell. Oh! That one induces me anxious. Ill pass, thanks, your friend will answer. And you will have been a responsible stoner that saved a friend from a few hours of anxiety-riddled thinks about self-deprecation and failure.

Good on you!

In the same vein, many people are still smoking spliffs( joints rolled with half weed and half tobacco ); if this doesnt bother you, just take the joint and be grateful.

But if its your joint, you should at least mention that it is half tobacco.

Thank you!

Dont blow smoke in people’s faces.

The last thing the stoner movement needs is more bad press; so dont be that guy who blows weed smoking in people faces to either coerce them to smoke with you or merely to boast that its now so much closer to legal that you most likely wont be arrested for it.

Thats not our thing. Our thing is inclusion, acceptance, and respect. Same runs for vaping!

Yes, the smell is greatly diminished by the THC petroleums having been cut with vegetable glycerin or coconut petroleum or something of that ilk.

The vapor itself dissipates quickly, leaving little tracing of itself. But dont be an asshole and puffed it in someones face. And dont vape in someones vehicle or home without asking.

Just like federal vaping laws that coincide with smoking laws, dont to continue efforts to vape in places where you havent been given explicit permission. Its rude.

Tell people youre dedicating them medicated edibles.

Guys, this one is SO. SERIOUS. Do not devote person edibles without telling them that theyre medicated. Furthermore, if you could identify the dosage before offering it, that would be amazing.

Everyones body composition is different. Some people who can smoke six joints to the face cant necessarily handle more than a starters dose of edibles( 10 mg ).

I am one of those people. Someone gave me a cookie at a party once and didnt know the dosage.

I expended the night talking to the ghost of my dead grandmother in a corner by myself for hours. Tell people the food is dosed! Try really hard to buy brands that have their consistent medicated dosage written on their packaging.

Pro tip: If you get too high on edibles, drinking water, eating sugar and taking a Benadryl will help. Also, a little back rub and simple reassurances from friends that youre OK and safe can really help.

Dont ever pressure somebody to take a bigger dab.

Dabs are right up there with edibles in the potentially going to give you a really bad night category because they can be extremely potent. Like 70+ percent THC; so take that potency seriously!

I once took a huge glob of a dab some guy offered me at a Cannabis Cup.

I was peer pressured when I requested a smaller one.

Long story short, I coughed my lungs out, expended the hour-ride home reasoning “were in” driving 8,000 miles per hour and then owed my boyfriend $60 to get his automobile detailed after I T-Rex puked all over it.

Mind you, Ive been smoking weed since 2000 and am no amateur.

Dabs do not f* ck around…so dont f* ck around with them. Either decline the dab if youre being pressured, or ask to take it yourself so you can dispense the amount with which you know you can deal.

Its not Jger, and we arent in a frat; so knock it off.

Dont judge people who are on other stuff, just help them.

One of the amazing properties of marijuana( besides the litany of medicinal remedies) is its ability to bring person down and stabilize them while theyre high on something else.

Whether its Molly( MDMA ), jolt( cocaine ), acid( LSD ), mushrooms( Psilocybin) or something else, weed will alleviate the eye wiggles, the jaw clenching, and the anxiety.

Not that Im telling Ive experienced this personally, but having weed around when rolling or tripping is extremely helpful in preventing you from taking a journey down the rabbit hole.

Im a fan of carrying around 510 cartridges with vapes and will more than happily share with someone who is scratching the lining of my sweater and telling my I have the face of an angel.

Weed helps people. If youre going to preach about its incredible gifts, you cant be prejudiced against its cousins that are more psychoactive. Pay it presented to people on a journey, and it will come back around to help you, I promise.

Please consume responsibly. Dont ever dose person or take pictures of them without its expertise and permission. Weed is love! Spread it around.

This post originally appeared on The Kind and was written by Adrienne Airhart .

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‘I was hooked for life’: science writers on the books that inspired them

Brian Cox, Garry Kasparov, Gaia Vince and other starrings of science writing pick the books that fired their imaginations

Brian Cox

Cosmologist Sean Carrolls book The Big Picture is about the origin of the universe. It looks at what scientific knowledge means and what it means to be a human in this vast cosmo. Its very much in the tradition of Carl Sagans Cosmos, which is one of my all-time favourite science books. Books like that are not only about science, they set science in the wider context of national societies.

Such books are valuable because they explain and present not only the things weve learned about a comparatively esoteric subject, but link those discoveries to our experience. Learning about nature teaches us about ourselves and how we should behave. I think that the best science volumes attain that connection.

Brian Cox is Professor of Particle Physics at the University of Manchester and the Royal Society Professor for Public Engagement in Science Gaia Vince is the author of Adventures in the Anthropocene, winner of the Royal Society Winton prize for science volumes 2015 Former world chess champ Garry Kasparov. Photograph: Thomas Samson/ AFP/ Getty Images Garry Kasparov was the 13 th world chess champ and is the author of Deep Thinking
Andrea Wulf. Photograph: Murdo Macleod for the Guardian Andrea Wulf is the author of The Invention of Nature, the winner of the Royal Society Insight Investment science book prize 2016 Adam Rutherford is a science writer, broadcaster and former geneticist
Claudia Hammond is a writer and broadcaster Writer and palaeontologist Richard Fortey. Photo: Eamonn McCabe for the Guardian Richard Fortey is a writer, broadcaster, palaeontologist and a Fellow of the Royal Society
Nobel chemistry laureate Venki Ramakrishnan. Photo: Andy Hall for the Observer

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Deficiency of these four things in your body can increase the risk of migraines by 300%

Migraines are very serious headaches that can be debilitating as shooting pains to the head occur, while nausea, vomiting and light sensitivity can also be experienced. Over 3 million US adult citizens suffer from migraine assaults, so it is very important to get the word out on how relief can be sought. Over the counter meds going to be able to, but few genuinely deal with the true issues causing the migraines.

Turns out there are inadequacies in our diets that can cause migraines to occurs. Here you can check out four of the most important things which are lacking in our bodies which in turn will cause migraines.


Migraines can be mild to severe, thus the therapy can be different. While theres no cure there are meds that help and avoid. Theres ache relieving meds and then theres preventive meds.

The pain relievers include things like aspirin, Tylenol and ibuprofen. Opioid medications, Anti-nausea medications and Ergots are also relievers.

Preventive medications include Beta blockers, anti-depressants, anti-seizure medications and some pain relievers.

Sometimes its the body lacking important compounds which can be the key to solving the migraine puzzle. Here are four very important compounds to take note of 😛 TAGEND

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Folic acid and Vitiman B12

These play a huge role for preventing anemia and if they are lacking they can be the cause of migraines, as well as causing fatigue, memory loss and irritability.

The catch-2 2 when taking aspirin to relieve migraine pain, is that the aspirin may lower the level of folic acid and construct B12 absorption difficult. So while you are relieving pain on one hand, you are opening up the door for more migraines on the other.

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Copper and Iron

More prone in females than humen, low levels of these can cause anemia which is the major cause of migraines. When copper levels are high, then this constructs it easier fro iron to be absorbed with foods we ingest. Kale, beans, nuts, goat cheese and avocados are all copper rich sources, while beans, whole grains, sunflower seeds, green leafy veggies and even chocolates are high in iron.

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This vitamin is found in cerals, beans, veggies, and liver. Its used for the therapy of both anemia and pyridoxine inadequacy, as well as heart disease. But migraine preventinon is where this vitamin really shines.

Its important for maintaining sugar, proteins and fats all functioning properly in the body while the committee is also keeps the brain, nerves and blood vessels healthy. Magnesium absorption it also assists in.

1. 7mg of pyridoxine everyday through natural foods is recommended.

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Vitamin D

Low high levels of vitamin D can cause the body to poorly assimilate magnesium while increasing inflammation responses. Inadequacy of vitamin D is related to migraines.

You can up your D doses by exposure to sunlight, which is especially important during the winter months. Vitamin D can be taken through foods such as eggs, beans, beef liver, mushrooms, milk and orange juice.

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If you do experience very severe migraines, always see a doctor.

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